Fact Sheet Zimbabwe/Southern Africa Regional Component

 

 

FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA (FSA) COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

 

between

 

U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 

and

 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

 

In-Country Time Period: June 1985 March 1992

 

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       Downloadable Documents

o   UZ/MSU Food Security Research in Southern Africa Project - Annual Conference Reports.  1987 -1991.

o   Click here to view all downloadable documents from this project at the USAID/Dec Archive (Documents posted here between 1985 and 1992 are from this project)

o   Click here to view many downloadable documents from this project located in the USAID/DEC Archive, search by author - Last name, first name - e.g. (Rukuni

, M, Mudimu, G, Wyckoff, J, Bernsten, R, Eicher, C, Jayne, T, Weber, M.)

 

1. Cooperating Institutions:

 

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe

SADCC Food Security Technical & Administrative Unit, Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural Resettlement, Zimbabwe

USAID/Southern Africa Regional Program, Harare

Department of Agricultural Economics, MSU

 

2. Researchers Involved:

 

Co-Directors: Mandivamba Rukuni, University of Zimbabwe and J.B. Wyckoff, Michigan State University.

MSU In-Country Researcher: Thomas Jayne and Richard Bersten

University of Zimbabwe Researchers: Mandivamba Rukuni, Godfrey Mudimu, Jayne Stack, Jones Govereh, Solomon Chigume1, M. Chisvo1, Augustine Zvinavashe, L. Rugube, E.A. Nuppenau, and Joseph Rusike

Michigan State University Researchers: Chuck Chopak

MSU Campus Backstop: Rick Bernsten, Carl Eicher, Jim Shaffer, Jim Tefft, Mike Weber, Chris Wolf

USAID/Harare Backstop: Doug Pickett

 

3. Objectives of the Research:

 

Inform and guide the implementation of agricultural, nutrition, and rural development strategies that successfully promote food household security. This objective was achieved through analysis of the maize, oilseed and small grain subsectors in order to provide policy makers a better understanding of micro and macro food security policy issues, tradeoffs and alternatives. In addition, the project sought to test and refine appropriate research methodologies to address food security policy issues; and strengthen indigenous capacity for food security policy analysis.

 

4. Research Approach:

The Zimbabwe research program had several research thrusts, some of which were implemented in collaboration with other institutions such as the SADCC/ICRISAT; the Economics and Markets Branch, Ministry of Land, Agriculture and Rural Resettlement; and the Ministry of Health.

 

A. Household Food Security

These studies analyzed national markets, farm households, merchants and selected public programs, using secondary and primary (survey) data. The household research focused on the maize, oilseed and small grain subsectors, particularly in low-rainfall natural regions. Specific studies were carried out to: 1) assess the potential of crop diversification to increase rural income and improve food security by analyzing the factors determining current cropping patterns, the potential for and constraints to introducing new crops, and policy strategies to facilitate crop diversification; 2) identify the incidence and constraints to the adoption of agricultural technology and policy mechanisms to promote greater adoption; 3) evaluate household grain marketing strategies and policies to promote grain sales, availability, and food security, and; 4) identify the determinants of household food security--including the incidence of and degree of family food insecurity, the structure and determinants of income and expenditures, the impact of commercialization on family food insecurity, and the impact of alternative policies. This research extended initial analysis that identified factors that contributed to rapid maize production expansion in communal areas since Independence, but found that many households were bypassed.

 

B. Domestic Market Performance and Reform Opportunities

 

This study analyzed the potential effects of cereals market reform on improving household food security at lower government costs by analyzing the factors constraining the operation of grain, grain meal, and input markets; assessing the volume and pattern of informal grain trade; and exploring the relationship between current grain consumption preferences and the structure/accessibility of grain and mealie meal marketing and pricing. This study drew on insights gained in previous research that identified bottlenecks in household grain marketing.

 

C. Expanded Grain Marketing and Trade

 

These studies analyzed domestic and macroeconomic policies and their impact on domestic marketing and trade. Specific studies included: 1) study of national grain price, stock, and trade policies to identify the sources of supply and demand instability and their impact on grain access and availability; evaluate the effects of yellow-maize decontrol on white maize supplies; assess the potential small grain trade, and evaluate the potential for alternative grain marketing, price, stock and trade arrangements to improve household food security; and 2) analysis of the effect of trade and exchange rate policies on crop diversification and food security. These studies extend previous research on the potential for and barriers to expanded grain marketing and trade in the SADCC region, and an historical analysis of the impact of Zimbabwe's exchange rate policy on agricultural trade.

 

D. Food Access/Nutrition

 

This study analyzed the relationship between household grain availability, incomes, and nutritional status; identified the major factors associated with poor nutritional status; promoted the design of cost-effective nutritional strategies; and assesses the effectiveness of food relief distribution. This research drew on understandings gained through project-funded research in Botswana on institutional innovation to provide an adequate food supply to at-risk households; including Pula-for-work and supplemental feeding for children under five years, indigents, and pregnant and nursing mothers.

 

5A. Outputs: Working Papers/Journal Articles/ Chapters in Books and Proceedings (Some of these documents are available online see listings and links below)

 

Bernsten, Rick, and David Rohrbach, "Inventory of Household Level Agricultural and Socio-Economic Data Sets, in Zimbabwe," August 15, 1985.

 

Blackie, M.J. "Restructuring Agricultural Delivery Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Zimbabwe," in J. Mellor, C. Delgado and M.J. Blackie, eds., Accelerating Food Production Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

 

Buccola, S.T. "Modelling Policy Options for the Zimbabwe Food Grain Subsector," December 1985.

 

Buccola, S.T., and C. Sukumi, "Food Price and Storage Policies: Private versus Social Optima Under Risk," submitted to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics.

 

Buccola, S.T., and C. Sukumi, "Optimal Grain Pricing and Storage Policies in Controlled Agricultural Economics: Applications to Zimbabwe," submitted to World Development.

 

Buccola, S.T., and C. Sukumi, "Pricing and Storage Decisions in Government Grain Marketing Boards, selected paper presented at the A.A.E.A. meetings, August, 1987.

 

Chisvo, Munhamo and T.S. Jayne. "Is Grain Availability an Important Determinant of Variation of Nutritional Status among Children." In J.B. Wyckoff and M. Rukuni (eds), Toward an Integrated National Food Policy Strategy, Proceedings of the Second National Consultative Workshop, Troutbeck Inn, Nyanga on Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy, UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1991.

 

Chisvo, M., T.S. Jayne, J. Tefft, Michael T. Weber and James D. Shaffer. "Traders' Perceptions of Constraints on Informal Grain Marketing in Zimbabwe: Implications for Household Food Security and Needed Research." In M. Rukuni and J.B. Wyckoff (eds), Market Reforms, Research Policies and Food Security in Southern Africa, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference on food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 1990. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1991.

 

Drane, F.H. "Feasibility Study of a Regional Grain Reserve and Food Aid in the SADCC Region," December 1985.

 

Eicher, Carl K. "Western Science and African Hunger," Francqui Foreign Lecture, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, February 5, 1986.

 

Eicher, Carl K., and Fidelis Mangwiro. "A Critical Assessment of the FAO Report on SADCC Agriculture and Agricultural Sector Studies," a paper presented at a SADCC Meeting of Permanent Secretaries, Chief Economists, Ministers of Agriculture and SADCC Food and Agriculture Sector Coordinators," Harare, July 24-26, 1986.

 

Eicher, Carl K. and Mandivamba Rukuni, "Developing a SADCC Food and Agriculture Strategy: Objectives, Components and Process," background paper prepared for the SADCC Meeting, Harare, July 24-26, 1986.

 

Eicher, Carl K., and Fidelis Mangwiro, "A Critical Assessment of the FAO Report on SADCC Agriculture," invited paper prepared for the SACCAR Newsletter, November 1986.

 

Highlights of the Second Annual University of Zimbabwe Conference on Food Security in Southern Africa, November 9-13, 1987. This working paper summarizes fifteen papers presented at the Conference and published in Rukuni and Eicher (1987), Food Security in Southern Africa.

 

Homewood, G., and M.J. Blackie, "Grain Marketing in Southern Africa: Illustrations from the Zimbabwe Grain Marketing Board," December 1985.

 

Jayne, T.S. and E. Nuppenau. "Small Grain Export Potential and Government Objectives in Zimbabwe: A Means-End Inconsistency?" Working Paper 6/90, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1990.

 

Jayne, T.S. and E. Nuppenau. "Maize Market Reform and Food Security: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Findings from Zimbabwe." Forthcoming in Food Policy.

 

Jayne, T.S. "Cash Cropping Incentives, Food Market Performance and the Divergence Between National and Household Comparative Advantage." Forthcoming in Economic Development and Cultural Change.

 

Jayne, T.S. and Munhamo Chisvo. "Zimbabwe's Food Insecurity Paradox: Implications for Grain Marketing reform in Southern Africa." Working Paper 1/91, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1990.

 

Jayne, T.S. and M. Chisvo. "Unraveling Zimbabwe's Food Insecurity Paradox: Implications for Grain Market Reform in Southern Africa." Food Policy, Vol. 16, No. 4, August 1991.

 

Jayne, T.S. and Lawrence Rubey. "Maize Milling, Market Reform and Urban Food Security: The Case of Zimbabwe." Forthcoming in World Development.

 

Jayne, T.S. and Mandivamba Rukuni. "Postscript to Zimbabwe's Maize Revolution: The Costs of Food Self Sufficiency." Submitted to Food Policy.

 

Jayne, T.S., M. Rukuni, M. Hajek, G. Sithole and G. Mudimu. "Structural Adjustment and Food Security in Zimbabwe." Study Commissioned by the World Bank for the Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural Resettlement, Government of Zimbabwe, 1991.

 

Jayne, T.S., M. Chisvo and M. Rukuni. "Zimbabwe's Food Insecurity Paradox." Forthcoming in Beneath the Surface of Zimbabwe's Maize Revolution by Carl Eicher and Mandivamba Rukuni (eds), University of California Press/University of Zimbabwe Press (joint publication).

 

Jayne, T.S. and M. Rukuni. "Managing Zimbabwe's Food Economy in the 1990s." Forthcoming in Beneath the Surface of Zimbabwe's Maize Revolution by Carl Eicher and Mandivamba Rukuni (eds), University of California Press/University of Zimbabwe Press (joint publication).

 

Jayne, T.S. and M. Chisvo. "Zimbabwe's Grain Marketing Policy Challenges in the 1990s: Short Run vs. Long Run Options." In J.B. Wyckoff and Mandivamba Rukuni (eds), Food Security Research in Southern Africa: Policy Implications, Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 1990. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1991.

 

Jayne, T.S., M. Rukuni, M. Hajek, G. Sithole and G. Mudimu. "Structural Adjustment, Maize Marketing Policy and Food Security in Zimbabwe." In J.B. Wyckoff and M. Rukuni (eds), Toward an Integrated National Food Policy Strategy, Proceedings of the Second National Consultative Workshop, Troutbeck Inn, Nyanga on Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy, UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1991.

 

Jayne, T.S., M. Chisvo, B. Hedden-Dunkhorst and S. Chigume. "Zimbabwe's Food Insecurity Paradox." In T.S. Jayne, Jean Wyckoff and Mandi Rukuni (eds), Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy in Zimbabwe, Proceedings of the First National Consultative Workshop on Food and Nutrition Policy in Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1990.

 

Jayne, T.S., M. Chisvo, S. Chigume and C. Chopak. "Grain Market Reliability, Access and Growth in Low-Potential Areas of Zimbabwe: Implications for National and Regional Supply Coordination in the SADCC Region." In M. Rukuni, G. Mudimu and T.S. Jayne (eds), Food Security Policies in the SADCC Region, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 1989, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1990.

 

Jayne, T.S., Jean Wyckoff and Mandi Rukuni (eds). Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the First National Consultative Workshop on Food and Nutrition Policy in Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1990.

 

Kingsbury, D. "Users Manual for the SADCC's Cereal Trade Database Compiled by UZ and MSU. MSU International Development Working Paper, 1989.

 

Kingsbury, David, Stackhouse, Lee Ann, and Rusike, Joseph. (1988). "Cereals Trade Patterns in the SADCC Region." University of Zimbabwe, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Working Paper AEE 3/88. Harare. March.

 

Kingsbury, David. (1988). "Effects of Alternative Foreign Exchange Allocation Systems on the Zambian Economy with Specific Reference to the Agricultural Sector: 1985-1988". University of Zimbabwe, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Working Paper AEE 8/88. Harare. August.

 

Kingsbury, David. (1988). "Potential Incentive Effects of Pricing Policy on Agricultural Trade in Several SADCC Countries: Preliminary Results". Paper prepared for the Fourth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, Holiday Inn, Harare, October 31 - November 3, 1988.

 

Mlambo, Kupikile, Kingsbury, David, and Rusike, Joseph. "Agricultural Marketing and Trade Policies with the Potential to Promote Food Security in countries of the SADCC Region: A Research Proposal". In: M. Rukuni, and R.H. Bernsten (eds.). Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options. (1988). Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

 

Mlambo, Kupikile. (1988). "Exchange Rate Overvaluation and Agricultural Performance in Zimbabwe: 1965-1985." Paper prepared for the Fourth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, Holiday Inn, Harare, October 31 - November 3, 1988.

 

Muchena, S.C. "SADCC's Food Security Programme: Implications for Food Security Researchers," December 1985.

 

Mudimu, G.D, and R.H. Bernsten (eds.) 1988. Household and National Food Security in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 31-November 3. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (28 papers).

 

Muntanga, C. "National Grain Reserve and Trade Policy Issues in Zambia," December 1985.

 

Murphy, Peter T.W. "The Zimbabwe National Grain Reserve, and Grain Trade Policy Issues with Particular Reference to Barter Trading," December 1985.

 

Rohrbach, D. "The Economics of Communal Sector Maize Production in Zimbabwe: 1980-1985," December 1985.

 

Rohrbach, D. "The Economics of Smallholder Maize Production in Zimbabwe: Implications for Food Security. MSU International Development Paper, East Lansing, MI 1989.

 

Rukuni, M., and M.J. Blackie, "Irrigation and Food Security in Southern Africa," December 1985.

 

Rukuni, Mandi, T.S. Jayne and Julia Tagwireyi. "Alleviating Hunger in Zimbabwe: Toward a National Food Security Strategy." Report Commissioned for the World Bank Agricultural Sector Memorandum, Report No. 9429, Agriculture Operations Division, Washington D.C., 1991.

 

Rukuni, M. and R.H. Bernsten (eds.) 1987. Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, November 1-5. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (26 papers).

 

Rukuni, M. and C.K. Eicher (eds.) 1986. Food Security for Southern Africa. Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, November 9-13. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (18 papers).

 

Rukuni, Mandi, G. Mudimu and T.S. Jayne (eds). Food Security Policies in the SADCC Region. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 1989, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1990.

 

Rukuni, M., and J.B. Wyckoff (eds). "Market Reforms, Research Policies and SADCC Food Security." Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of Food Security Research in Southern Africa, November 12-14, 1990. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Departement of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

 

Rusike, Joseph. (1988). "Trader Perceptions on Constraints to Expanding Agricultural Input Trade Among Selected SADCC Countries: Preliminary Results". Paper prepared for the Fourth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, Holiday Inn, Harare, October 31 - November 3, 1988.

 

Sigwele, Howard. "Botswana National Food Security Policy," December 1985.

 

Stanning, Jayne. "Household Grain Marketing and Storage Decisions in Southern Africa," December 1985.

 

Stanning, Jayne. "Factors of Change and Uncertainty in the Contribution of Small Scale Producers to Marketed Agricultural Output in Zimbabwe," paper presented at the XIXth Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, Malaga, Spain, August 25-September 5, 1985.

 

UZ/MSU Food Security Project. "Toward An Integrated National Food Policy Strategy: Proceedings of the Second National Consultative Workshop on Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy ." Troutbeck Inn, Nyanga, June 10-12. 1991

 

Wyckoff, J.B., and M. Rukuni (eds). "Food Security Research in Southern Africa: Policy Implications." Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 28-30, 1991. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare

 

Wyckoff, J.B. and Mandivamba Rukuni. Market Reforms, Research Policies and SADCC Food Security. May 1991.

 

 

5B. Outputs: Theses and Dissertations

 

 

Chigume, S. "Grain Marketing Organization: Household Marketing Behavior and Food Security in Semi-Arid Areas of Zimbabwe," M. Phil., UZ.

Chisvo, Munhamo. "Grain Market Performance, Household Nutrition and Food Security in Zimbabwe: Implications for Policy.

 

Chopak, C. "Structure, Level, and Determinants of Rural Poverty in Low Rainfall Areas of Zimbabwe," Ph.D., MSU.

 

Govereh, J. "Impacts of Tsetse Control on Migration and Capital Accumulation: Zambezi Valley," Ph.D. MSU.

 

Kingsbury, D. 1989, "Analysis of Policy and Non-Policy Barriers to Agricultural Marketing and Trade in Southern Africa," Ph.D., MSU.

 

Makombe, G. "Economics of Groundnut Production in Zimbabwe," M. Phil, UZ.

 

Mudimu, G. "Crop Diversification in the Low and High Rainfall Communal Areas of Zimbabwe," D.Phil.

 

Mudimu, Godfrey D. Planning and Evaluating Agricultural Research in Zimbabwe: A Preliminary Assessment and Research Proposal. Plan B Paper, 1986.

 

Ngobese, P. 1987, "The Economics of Large-Scale Wheat Production in Zimbabwe," M.S., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

 

Rohrbach, D. 1987, "Growth of Smallholder Maize Production and Food Security in Zimbabwe," Ph.D., MSU.

 

Stanning, J. "Smallholder Marketing and Consumption Behavior in Three Communal Areas of Zimbabwe," D.Phil., UZ.

 

 

5C. Outputs: Seminars, Conferences, and Conference Proceedings

 

In Zimbabwe, the Food Security team has made presentations at:

 

- The First Annual University of Zimbabwe Conference on Food Security in Southern Africa, December 1985.

- The Second Annual University of Zimbabwe Conference on Food Security in Southern Africa, November 1986.

- The Third Annual University of Zimbabwe Conference on Food Security in Southern Africa, November 1987.

- The Fourth Annual University of Zimbabwe Conference on Food Security in Southern Africa, November 1988.

- The Fifth Annual University of Zimbabwe Conference on Food Security in Southern Africa, October 1989.

- Workshop on Food Security Research Methodology and Software, March, 1987.

- Review of Policy Implications of the Maize Study Research (Rohrbach) presented to policy analysts and decision makers in the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Resettlement, Grain Marketing Board and Agricultural Finance Corporation.

- Seminars at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe.

- National Consultative Workshop on Food Nutrition and Agricultural Policy, July 15-18, 1990.

 

In the U.S., presentations on the research have been made to:

 

- USAID officials in Africa Bureau and S & T.

- MSU students and faculty on six different occasions.

- Rockefeller Foundation

 

Rukuni, M. and C.K. Eicher (eds.) 1986. Food Security for Southern Africa. Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, November 9-13. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (18 papers).

 

Rukuni, M. and R.H. Bernsten (eds.) 1987. Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, November 1-5. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (26 papers).

 

Mudimu, G.D, and R.H. Bernsten (eds.) 1988. Household and National Food Security in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 31-November 3. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (28 papers).

 

Rukuni, Mandi, G. Mudimu and T.S. Jayne (eds). Food Security Policies in the SADCC Region. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 1989, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1990.

 

Rukuni, M., and J.B. Wyckoff (eds). "Market Reforms, Research Policies and SADCC Food Security." Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of Food Security Research in Southern Africa, November 12-14, 1990. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Departement of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

 

Wyckoff, J.B., and M. Rukuni (eds). "Food Security Research in Southern Africa: Policy Implications." Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of Food Security Research in Southern Africa, October 28-30, 1991. UZ/MSU Food Security Project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

 

Jayne, T.S., Jean Wyckoff and Mandi Rukuni (eds). Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the First National Consultative Workshop on Food and Nutrition Policy in Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1990.

 

UZ/MSU Food Security Project. "Toward An Integrated National Food Policy Strategy: Proceedings of the Second National Consultative Workshop on Integrating Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Policy ." Troutbeck Inn, Nyanga, June 10-12.



1. Research Scholars