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SAHEL REGIONAL PROGRAM FOR STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH CAPACITY ON FOOD SECURITY IN THE SAHEL (PRISAS)

FOOD SECURITY II COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

between

U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT and MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

IN-COUNTRY TIME PERIOD: JANUARY 1990 - JULY 1997

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1. Cooperating Institutions

Institut du Sahel (INSAH), Bamako, Mali

Agency for International Development, Mali Mission (USAID/Bamako)

Agency for International Development, Africa Bureau, Office for West Africa, Sahel Regional Program (AFR/WA)

Agency for International Development, Global Bureau, Economic Growth Center, Office of Agriculture and Food Security (G/EG/AFS)

Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University (MSU)

2. Researchers Involved

INSAH: Dr. M.S. Sompo-Ceesay, Director General, INSAH (Overall Coordinator)

INSAH/MSU In-country Researchers: Dr. Josué Dioné (In-Country Program Director), Mbaye Yade, Bakary Kanté, Daouda Diarra, Younoussa Maïga, and James Tefft

INSAH-Based CIRAD Researcher: Anne Chohin

MSU Campus Backstop: John Staatz, Eric Crawford, A. Allan Schmid, Thomas Reardon, Michael Weber, Valerie Kelly, Duncan Boughton, Aliou Diagne, Bocar Diagana, David Dibley, David Yanggen, Yacoub Abdelwahid, Samuel Asuming-Brempong, Georges Dimithé and Jean-Charles LeVallée

AID Washington: Ralph Cummings (G/EG/AFS), Joan Atherton (AFR/WA), and Rod Kite (AFR/WA)

3. Objectives of the Research and Policy Outreach Activities

The add-on enables collaborative research and outreach by MSU and INSAH's PRISAS program. Their activities aim to strengthen the empirical basis for food-policy decisions in the Sahel by:

Beginning in 1995, PRISAS has focused especially on the impacts of the devaluation of the CFA franc on food security and real incomes in West Africa. (The exchange rate between the CFA franc and the French franc was halved on January 12, 1994, from 1 FF = 50 CFA F to 1 FF = 100 CFA F.) The impact of such a major devaluation cannot be predicted a priori. The capacity of the economies to respond to this change in the macroeconomic environment depends critically on conditions in each country. If the devaluation is to stimulate sustainable economic growth, the constraints to and possibilities for responding to new opportunities created by the new macroeconomic environment need to be identified and analyzed. This add-on provides a mechanism for creating a coordinated regional monitoring and analysis effort based on the work of individual national West African teams using a common research approach. The national teams are linked together into a regional network coordinated by the Institut du Sahel's regional food security program (INSAH/PRISAS).

A key objective of the effort is to identify areas where strategic actions by governments, the private sector, and donors can augment the positive effects and limit the negative impacts of the devaluation on food security and income growth. As part of this monitoring and analysis effort, PRISAS and MSU staff make frequent trips to work with the national teams. Research results are diffused rapidly through national and regional bulletins, press releases, national and regional workshops with policy makers, and other forms of publication.

4. Research Approach

In order to carry out its research mandate effectively, PRISAS aims at strengthening: (a) the capacity of local research institutions in the Sahel to carry out applied research on food security, and (b) the capacity of INSAH to help coordinate research on region-wide food security issues. The PRISAS support project has helped INSAH carry out this mandate through:

To analyze the effects of the CFA franc devaluation, PRISAS has organized a series of comparative studies in CFA and neighboring non-CFA countries on the impact of the devaluation, working with its network of West African researchers and policy analysts. The approach to this research includes working with national teams to develop country studies, and with those teams and the INSAH group to develop regional syntheses. At the national level, the approach builds on existing national research and policy structures to carry out the analysis in West Africa. Such locally-based, ongoing analysis is central to strengthening local capacity and designing effective policies.

The program of research and outreach, which will run through mid-1997, covers the following countries: Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Benin. The program focuses on the impact of devaluation on:

5. Outputs to Date

5.1. PRISAS-Sponsored Regional Food Security Seminars and WorkshopsDevaluation of the CFA Franc: Opportunities and Constraints for Agricultural Subsectors in West Africa, November 1996.

Impact of the Devaluation of the CFA Franc on Incomes and Food Security in West Africa.

Workshops held in Bamako to design and report on research:
- July 1994
- June 1995
- April 1996
- June 1996

Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment: Implications for Agricultural Research in the Sahel. Bamako, September 1993.

Income Diversification, Informal Non-Agricultural Activities and Food Security. Bamako, November 1992.

Institutional and Legal Environment of Agricultural Input and Commodity Markets in the Sahel. Bamako, March 1992.

Workshop on Designing Food-Security Policy-Relevant Research in the Sahel. Bamako, November 1991.

Food Security in the Sahel: Review of Studies and Priorities for Future Policy Research and Dialogue. Bamako, May 1991.

5.2. PRISAS-Sponsored National Roundtable Discussions on the Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Food Security and Real Incomes

PRISAS has supported workshops by national research teams to present results from their research on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation to policy makers, the private sector, the press, donor agencies, NGOs, and other researchers. To date, the following national roundtables have been held:

- October 1996: Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Key Agricultural Subsectors

- October 1996: Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Key Agricultural Subsectors

- October 1996: Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Key Agricultural Subsectors

- February 1996: Impact of CFA Franc Devaluation on Relative Prices and Costs of Production

- October 1996: Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Key Agricultural Subsectors

- February 1996: Impact of CFA Franc Devaluation on Relative Prices and Costs of Production

- October 1996: Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Key Agricultural Subsectors

- February 1996: Impact of CFA Franc Devaluation on Relative Prices and Costs of Production

- October 1996: Impact of the CFA Franc Devaluation on Key Agricultural Subsectors

- February 1996: Impact of CFA Franc Devaluation on Relative Prices and Costs of Production

5.3. Oral Presentations by INSAH/PRISAS Affiliated Researchers

In addition to the national roundtables listed above, the following presentations have been made to African researchers and policy makers:

June 1996 presentation by Kelly, Bocar Diagana and Moustapha Kebe (ISRA/PASE) to ISRA on reasons for the weak supply response of Senegalese agriculture to devaluation and other policy reforms.

December 1995. Mali. Presentation by Dioné to the CILSS meeting on Agricultural Transformation in the Sahel. Presentation entitled "Cadre conceptual pour une reflexion sur la transformation de l'agriculture au Sahel."

December 1995. Mali. Presentation by Staatz and Reardon to the CILSS meeting on Agricultural Transformation in the Sahel. Presentation entitled "Role stratégique des systèmes agricoles et alimentaries dans la lutte contre la faim par la promotion d'use croissance économique durable."

November 1995. Niger. Presentation by Dioné to the CILSS meeting on the Future of the Sahel (Sahel 21).

November 1995. Mali. Presentation by Reardon at the Colloque International sur Intensification Agricole au Sahel: Mythe ou Realité? (organized by INSAH, IER, AB-DLO, Wageningen, ICRISAT, CIRAD, ICRAF, and ILRI). "Capital-led Intensification in Sahel Agriculture: Addressing Structural Constraints After Policy Reform."

September 1995. Côte d'Ivoire. Presentation by Dioné to African Development Bank (ADB) workshop on Agricultural Transformation in Africa, Abidjan. Invited paper on agricultural transformation in the Sahel.

June 1995. Mali. Presentation by Dioné to the Economic, Social, and Cultural Council of Mali on the implications of fiscal and trade policies for the competitiveness of the Malian economy.

May 1995. Mali. Presentation by Dioné to the National Education Federation (FEN) of Mali on the effects of structural adjustment on education.

March 1995. Mali. Presentation by Reardon at INSAH workshop on Natural Resource Management. "Links between food security and natural resource management in the Sahel."

September 1994. Burkina Faso. Dioné participation in CILSS review of WALTPS study of the relationship between urban and rural areas in the Sahel, in light of devaluation, Ouagadougou.

March 1994. The Gambia. Dioné participation in CORAF/USAID meeting in Banjul on regional coordination of agricultural research.

January 1994. Senegal. Dioné participation in FAO-CIRAD workshop in Dakar on the promotion of sustainable agricultural production in West Africa.

January 1994. Belgium. Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the ADB/OECD/CILSS "Long-term Perspective Study of West Africa" organized by CINERGIE/ADB: Brussels, Belgium, 17-19 January 1994. (Dioné as Member of the Scientific Committee and discussant of the economic component of the study.)

January 1994. Senegal. FAO/CIRAD. Regional Seminar on "Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Sudano-Sahelian Countries of Africa" organized by FAO and CIRAD: Dakar, Senegal, 10-14 January 1994. Invited presentation by Dioné: "Décalage entre la production et la consommation de céréales dans les pays du CILSS." Presentation by Dioné for Reardon: "Liens entre la diversification des revenus et la gestion de resources naturelles au Sahel."

December 1993. Burkina Faso. Presentation by Reardon (with Kimsey Savadogo) at the University of Ouagadougou on "Farm-level Productivity in Burkina Faso."

June 1993. Mali. National Seminar on "Cereals Policy in Mali"; organized by the Government of Mali and supporting-donors of the Cereals Market Restructuring Program (PRMC), Bamako (Dioné as invited expert).

June 1993. Zimbabwe. International Symposium on "Agricultural Transformation in Africa"; organized by Harvard International Institute of Development and USAID, Harare, Zimbabwe; 01-03 June, 1993 (Dioné and Staatz as invited experts).

December 1992. Senegal. International Seminar on "Regional Integration and Food Security in West Africa"; organized by IFPRI, Sunugal, Senegal; 02-04 December 1992 (Dioné as invited expert).

November 1992. Mali. Institut du Sahel/CILSS. Regional workshop on "Diversification des revenus, activités informelles non agricoles et sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Presentations: "Role and determinants of income diversification in the Sahel: Illustration from Burkina Faso" (Reardon); "Activités informelles non agricoles et sécurité alimentaire au Sahel" (Kanté); "Quelques notes sur les méthodes d'analyse des activités informelles non agricoles en rapport avec la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel" (Staatz).

October 1992. Côte d'Ivoire: WAEA/ESAEA. Seminar presentation: "Is Income Diversification 'Agriculture-led' in the WASAT? Survey Evidence and Development Strategy Implications" (Reardon).

June 1992. Côte d'Ivoire. Centre Ivorien de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (CIRES). Informational Seminar on "Regional Economic Integration in West Africa," organized by CIRES, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; 15-18 June 1992. Dioné: Discussant of potential trade creation and diversion effects of regional integration, and presentation of PRISAS/INSAH's approach to regional cooperation and collaboration in research on food security and income growth.

March 1992. Bamako, Mali, Institut du Sahel/CILSS, Regional Workshop: "Institutional and Legal Environment of Agricultural Input and Commodity Markets in the Sahel." Presentations: "Effects on Rural Economies of High Transaction Costs" (Staatz and Reardon); "Legal Foundations of the Market: Implications for Africa" (Schmid).

August 1991. France. Joint Programming Meeting of CILSS and Club du Sahel 1992 Activities; Paris, France; 20-24 August 1991.

June 1991. Mali. Regional Seminar on "Managing Food-Security Information in the Sahel"; organized by CILSS/DIAPER, Bamako, Mali; 03-05 June 1991 (Dioné as representative of the Institute of the Sahel, CILSS).

May 1991. Mali. Regional Workshop: "Food Security in the Sahel: Review of Studies and Priorities for Future Policy Research and Dialogue." (Presentations by Dioné, Staatz, and Weber.)

May 1991. Mali. Regional Seminar on "Cereals Policy Interactions in the Western Sub-Space of West Africa"; organized by CILSS and Club du Sahel, Bamako, Mali; 27-31 May 1991.

January 1991. Mali. Regional Workshop on "Revitalizing Agricultural Research in the Sahel"; sponsored by the Special Program for African Agricultural Research (SPAAR) of the World Bank, and organized by SPAAR and the Institute of the Sahel (CILSS), Bamako, Mali; 6-11 January, 1991 (Dioné).

November-December 1990. Mali. National Colloquium on "Scientific and Technology Research Policy in Mali"; organized by the National Scientific and Technological Research Center, Bamako, Mali; 26 November-01 December 1990 (Dioné as representative of the Institute of the Sahel, CILSS).

September 1990. Dakar, Senegal. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles. Economists' Group. Presentation on Food Security Research in the Sahel (Dioné and Staatz).

April-May 1990. Prepared extensive documentation of market information, research and policy diffusion work with OPAM/Mali for the Seminaire du CILSS/Club du Sahel sur les Systémes d'Information.

November 1989. Togo. Seminar on "Regional Cereals Markets in West Africa: Current Dynamics and Implications for the Future"; sponsored by CILSS/Club du Sahel; Lomé, Togo; 06-11 November 1989 (invited presentations by Dioné and Staatz).

September 1996. Presentation to USAID/Mali on results from studies on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on real incomes and food security in West Africa (Dioné, Staatz, Yade, Tefft).

June 1996. Presentation by Kelly, Bocar Diagana and Moustapha Kebe (ISRA/PASE) to USAID/Senegal on reasons for the weak supply response of Senegalese agriculture to devaluation and other policy reforms.

June 1996. Presentation by Kelly, Bocar Diagana and Moustapha Kebe (ISRA/PASE) to World Bank mission working on the agricultural sector investment program in Senegal on reasons for the weak supply response of Senegalese agriculture to devaluation and other policy reforms.

June 1996. Briefing of European Union representative in Dakar by Kelly on PRISAS-sponsored research on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on the Senegalese peanut and horticultural subsectors

March 1996. Presentation by Staatz, Kelly, and Reardon to AFR/WA on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation, Washington, DC.

March 1996. Invited talk by Reardon at FAO/Rome on rural income diversification and sustainable development in Africa: focus on the Sahel.

March 1996. Invited talk by Reardon at World Food Program, Rome, on the African rural development crisis and relief strategies: focus on the Sahel and Rwanda.

February 1996. Kelly briefing of USAID/Senegal on results of studies on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on the costs of production of key agricultural products in Senegal.

February 1996. Kelly briefing of DAI on results of studies on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on the costs of production of key agricultural products in Senegal. (DAI is currently doing research on the Senegalese rice subsector.)

December 1995-January 1996. Reardon review of draft AFR/WA Strategy Document at the request of AFR/WA.

December 1995. Presentation by Reardon to USAID/Mali on preliminary results of the CFA franc devaluation on agricultural production and consumption.

October 1995. Briefing by Kelly to USAID/Senegal on PRISAS-supported research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and agricultural costs of production in Senegal.

September 1995. Briefing by Kelly to USAID/Niger on PRISAS-supported research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and agricultural costs of production in Niger.

July 1995. Briefing by Kelly to USAID/Senegal on PRISAS-supported research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and agricultural costs of production in Senegal.

July 1995. Presentation by Reardon to the USAID/Mali Economics Group on "Results of MSU Research on Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability: Implications for Strategic Planning."

June 1995. Presentations by Dioné, Reardon, and Staatz to AFR/WA Regional Sahel Collaborators workshop on impact analysis of the impact of CFA franc devaluation on real incomes and food security in West Africa.

February 1995. Presentation by Amadou Koita to WHO/UNESCO conference in Geneva on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on health and education in West Africa. Koita presented an invited paper on the impact of devaluation on the education sector in Mali.

October 1994. Presentation by Dioné to Club du Sahel, Paris, on impact of CFA franc devaluation on agriculture, regional trade, and food security.

June 1994. Presentations by Kelly, Reardon, and Staatz to USAID/AFR/SD and AFR/SWA on impact of initial impacts of CFA devaluation on food prices and real incomes in the Sahel.

February 1994. USAID/Africa Bureau, Sahel/West Africa Office and ARTS/FARA. Presentation on "Designing Food Security Strategies in a Rapidly Changing Social, Political, and Economic Environment: Challenges for the Sahel (with special emphasis on CFA devaluation)." Presentation by Staatz, Kelly, and Reardon.

November 1993. France. Club du Sahel, OECD. International Meeting of the "Network for Food-Crisis Prevention in the Sahel," organized by the Club du Sahel, Paris, France; 17-19 November 1993. Presentation by Dioné as invited expert: "Approches de Sécurité Alimentaire dans les Pays du CILSS."

February 1993. France. OECD/Development Center. Invited presentation on income diversification in West Africa (Reardon).

May 1992. Poverty and Social Policy Division, Africa Technical Department, World Bank. Invited presentation by Reardon: "Income diversification in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics." (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.)

July 1991. USAID/Africa Bureau. Policy Workshop "Food Security in Africa: Improving Household Access to Food"; organized by USAID, Washington, D.C., USA; 18 July 1991.

September 1990. France. International Seminar on "The Future of Agriculture in Sahelian Countries"; sponsored by the Club du Sahel and CIRAD, Montpellier, France; 12-14 September 1990 (Dioné as invited speaker, Staatz as discussant).

June 1990. France. Technical Review Meeting on Research on Regional Cereals Trade in West Africa"; sponsored by the Club du Sahel, Paris, France; June 20-22, 1990 (Dioné).

October 1996. Presentation and conference paper, "Making Research Count: The Political Economy of Food Policy Research in the Sahel." D. McMillan and T. Reardon, presentation by McMillan (on behalf of her and Reardon) at the conference "Food in Global History," Ann Arbor, University of Michigan. Paper will be published in proceedings.

March 1996. Reardon presentation (on behalf of co-authors of paper, Kelly, Diagana, Dioné, Crawford, Savadogo, Boughton), "Sustainable Capital-led Intensification in Sahel Agriculture: Addressing Structural Constraints After Macroeconomic Policy Reform." International Symposium "Food Security and Innovations: Successes and Lessons Learned," Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany. Paper appears in conference proceedings volume and in Food Policy.

March 1996. Presentation by Staatz on "Agricultural Transformation and Food Security in Africa: Methodological Challenges and Preliminary Results." Université Laval, Centre Sahel, Québec.

November 1995. American Anthropological Association Meetings in Washington, D. C., panel on "Post-Structural Adjustment and Food Security in Africa: Policy, Theory, and Cross-Disciplinary Evidence." Invited presentation on "Capital-led Intensification in Sahel Agriculture: Addressing Structural Constraints After Macroeconomic Policy Reform" (Reardon).

August 1994. American Agricultural Economics Association annual meetings in San Diego, symposium on "Policies for Fragile Lands Development in the Tropics: New Challenges for Economic Analysis." Presentation on "Sustainability Issues in Agricultural Development in the Sahel" (Reardon).

March 1994. Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, presentation on "Income Diversification in the Sahel: Implications for Food Security" (Reardon).

November 1993. Denmark. Center for African Studies, University of Copenhagen. Invited talk on income diversification in West Africa (Reardon).

November 1993. Denmark. Roskilde University, Conference on natural resource management in fragile lands of Africa. Talks titled "Alternate Sources of Income and Natural Resource Management in Fragile, Drought-prone Areas of the African Semi-arid Tropics," and "Issues in the Analysis of Macro and Sectoral Policy Impacts on Productivity and Conservation Investments at the Household Level" (Reardon).

January 1993. Germany. University of Hohenheim. Invited presentation on policy and development strategy implications of income diversification in West Africa (Reardon).

October 1992. Center for Advanced Studies in International Development (CASID), Michigan State University, 1st Special Seminar, Oct. 29: "Income Diversification in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics (WASAT): Policy and Development Strategy Implications" (Reardon).

September 1992. Montpellier, France. CIRAD Seminar on Institutional Economics and Agriculture. Presentation "Institutionalist Perspectives on Agricultural Policy Reforms in West Africa" (Staatz).

September 1992. Germany, University of Hohenheim. Seminar presentation on impacts of structural adjustment in the Sahel, 29th Seminar of European Association of Agricultural Economics (Reardon).

July 1992. England: Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex, England. Invited presentation: "Income Diversification in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics" (Reardon).

December 1991. The Netherlands. Seminar on "Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development in Semi-Arid Sub-Saharan Africa"; organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Development Cooperation, The Hague, The Netherlands; 09-10 December 1991 (Dioné as invited expert).

July 1990. Finland. International Conference on "Hunger and Public Action"; sponsored by WIDER, Helsinki, Finland; 11-13 July 1990 (Dioné as invited discussant).

June 1990. France. International Colloquium on "How to Feed the World? Food Policies in a Context of Liberalization of Economies and Trade"; sponsored by SOLAGRAL, Paris, France; 26-28 June 1990 (invited presentation by Dioné).

5.4. Collaborative Research Short-term Training and Outreach Activities with National Researchers in West Africa

Through mini-grants and other mechanisms, PRISAS has helped support the following research and outreach activities of West Africans working in national research systems:

Mali study tour. In October 1995, PRISAS helped arrange a tour to Mali by 10 Mozambicans (from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing and from the cotton subsector) and 5 Ethiopians (3 from the Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation, 1 from the Ethiopian Grain Trading Enterprise and 1 from the Emergency Food Security Reserve Administration). The purpose was to learn about Malian experiences with market information, market reform, and reorganization of commodity subsectors and agricultural research, especially for cotton and related food-crop subsectors. The travel was financed by the World Bank, USAID/Mozambique and USAID/Ethiopia. PRISAS staff helped with local arrangements and provided key briefings on the Malian experience. Insights gained from this trip have strongly influenced food policy debates in Mozambique and Ethiopia and illustrate how PRISAS has contributed to food policy reform across the continent.

Mali maize subsector study. PRISAS supported participation of non-IER researchers in initial rapid reconnaissance study, provided methodological support, and helped diffuse findings throughout the region.

Food security success story, prepared as an input into the FAO World Food Summit, October 1996.

GIS training. Participation of a Malian researcher, Dramane Mariko (of IER) in USAID/REDSO/WA workshop in Abidjan on incorporation of GIS into survey research (May 1996).

Research write-ups. Support to Senegalese (ISRA) researchers to write up modeling work on a large income-consumption study in Senegal. ISRA researchers Diagana, Fall, and Dakona spent October-November 1992 at MSU working with campus-based staff on this modeling.

Research design. Provided funds for Chadian researcher to consult with Senegalese colleagues at ISRA on the design of a millet and sorghum marketing study in Chad.

PRISAS has also provided methodological support and funds (research grants) for country studies of the impact of the devaluation of the CFA franc on:

5.5. Long-Term Training

PRISAS provided research support and thesis supervision to two Malian students, Daouda Diarra and Youssouna Maïga, completing their Doctorats de 3ème Cycle in Agricultural Economics at the University of Abidjan. Their thesis research was carried out in Mali, and Dr. Dioné served as their thesis supervisor and member of their guidance committees.

Aliou Diagne, a Senegalese Ph.D. student in Agricultural Economics at MSU, served as a research assistant to the project. This assistantship allowed him to complete his Ph.D. studies at MSU.

Bocar Diagana, a Senegalese Ph.D. student in Agricultural Economics at MSU, serves as a research assistant to the project. This assistantship is allowing him to complete his Ph.D. studies at MSU.

Samuel Assuming-Brempong, a Ghanaian Ph.D. student in Agricultural Economics at MSU, serves as a research assistant to the project. This assistantship is allowing him to complete his Ph.D. studies at MSU.

Georges Dimithé, a Cameroonian Ph.D. student in Agricultural Economics at MSU, serves as a research assistant to the project. This assistantship is allowing him to complete his Ph.D. studies at MSU.

Yacoub Abdelwahid, a Chadian M.S. student in Agricultural Economics at MSU, served as a research specialist to the project. This work allowed him to complete his M.S. studies at MSU.

Reardon served as the external member of the thesis committee for Harounan Kazianga, January 1996, FASEG, Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Subject: Impact of CFA devaluation on rural consumption in Burkina Faso.

5.6. Support of Other African Research Initiatives

PRISAS-affiliated staff support other ongoing initiatives to improve food policies in Africa through participation in the following activities:

In addition, the devaluation work of PRISAS directly reinforces work going on in national research systems throughout West Africa. Most of these systems have identified as a high priority the need to evaluate of the impact of CFA franc devaluation on food security and the profitability of alternative enterprises in their countries. The PRISAS-supported devaluation studies provide additional support to those efforts and places the national studies within a broader regional context. The PRISAS devaluation project is also working collaboratively with efforts undertaken to monitor the impact of devaluation by:

CEDRES (Université de Ouagadougou)

CIRES (Université Nationale de Côte d'Ivoire)

WARDA

CIRAD (impact on rice systems in West Africa)

5.7. MSU and PRISAS Backstop Trips to In-Country Teams

Most trips were jointly financed by other USAID/Mali or Africa Bureau (SD/PSGE) add-ons, and staff time was split between supporting those activities and PRISAS activities.

November 1996, trip to Mali by Staatz, Reardon, and LeVallée. Helped prepare and participate in PRISAS regional workshop in Bamako on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors. Planned follow-up publication and diffusion strategy. LeVallée worked with Yade and Tefft on finalizing SPSS training materials for use with market information systems.

October 1996, trip by Chohin to Côte d'Ivoire to help national team finalize reports for presentation at the November regional workshop in Bamako on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

October 1996, trip by Dioné and Tefft to Chad to participate in national roundtable workshop on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

October 1996, trip by Dioné and Tefft to Benin to participate in national roundtable workshop on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

October 1996, trip by Yade to Burkina Faso to participate in national roundtable workshop on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

October 1996, trip by Dioné and Yade to Senegal to participate in national roundtable workshop on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

October-November 1996, trip by Kelly to Senegal and Mali. In Senegal, helped prepare and participate in national roundtable workshop on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors. In Mali, worked with PRISAS staff to help prepare regional workshop on this topic.

September 1996, trip by Yade to Senegal. Backstopped national teams carrying out research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsector and helped plan national roundtable workshop on the results, held in October. Worked with cereals market information system to assess their training needs.

September 1996, trip by Staatz to Mali and Ghana. Worked in Bamako with PRISAS team to design November 1996 regional workshop and follow-on activities. In Ghana, reviewed preliminary results of national team's research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

July-August 1996, trip by Tefft to Chad and Benin. Backstopped national teams carrying out research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

June-July 1996, trip by Tefft to Benin and Ghana. Backstopped national teams carrying out research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

June 1996, trip by Kelly and Yade to Senegal. Worked with ISRA team on research on impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors and on impacts of policy reforms on agricultural productivity in Senegal.

June 1996, trip by Dioné and Tefft to Ghana. Worked with national team to finalize plans for study of impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

May-June 1996, trip by Chohin to Côte d'Ivoire. Backstopped national teams carrying out research on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

May 1996, trip by Dioné and Tefft to Benin. Worked with national team to finalize plans for study of impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

May 1996, trip by Tefft to Côte d'Ivoire. Worked with national team to finalize plans for study of impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors. Also participated in REDSO/WA workshop on incorporation of GIS into survey research.

May 1996, trip by Yade to Burkina Faso. Worked with national team to finalize plans for study of impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors. Also consulted with CILSS Executive Secretariat on Sahel 21 initiative.

May-July 1996, trip by Diagana to Senegal. Worked with colleagues at ISRA on studies of the impact of CFA franc devaluation on urban consumption in Senegal and on agricultural productivity in Senegal.

April-May 1996, trip by Kelly and Boughton to Mali. Helped organize and participate in PRISAS regional workshop on impacts of CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and costs of production in West Africa.

March-April 1996, trip by Tefft to Côte d'Ivoire, Benin and Ghana. Worked with national teams to design studies on the impact of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors in these countries.

March-April 1996, trip by Yade to Senegal. Worked with ISRA researchers on analyses of impact of CFA franc devaluation on costs of production and relative prices in Senegal.

March 1996, trip by Dioné to Burkina Faso. Worked with Burkinabé national team to design study on impacts of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

March 1996, trip by Dioné to Ghana. Initial contacts with Ghanaian national team that will design study on impacts of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

February 1996, trip by Dioné to Senegal. Participated in national roundtable on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and costs of production of key agricultural commodities in Senegal.

February 1996, trip by Boughton to Mali. Worked with Tefft and Ousmane Sanogo (IER) on development of a manual for conducting subsector studies in West Africa.

February 1996, trip by Reardon to Mali. Worked with: (a) Kassim Singaré (IPR) and Bino Témé and Ousmane Sanogo (IER) on study of impact of devaluation on consumption patterns in Bamako, (b) Bakary Kanté (INSAH) on paper analyzing government "accompanying measures" to lessen the adverse impacts of the devaluation, and (c) Francis Akindes (University of Abidjan) on a paper on methods for carrying out consumption studies.

February 1996, trip to Chad by Dioné. Participated in Chadian national roundtable workshop on impacts of the CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and costs of production of key commodities in Chad.

February 1996, trip to Niger by Dioné. Participated in Nigerians national roundtable workshop on impacts of the CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and costs of production of key commodities.

January-February 1996, trip to Chad by Tefft. Helped prepare and participated in Chadian national roundtable workshop on impacts of the CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and costs of production of key commodities.

January-February 1996, trip to Senegal and Mali by Kelly. Helped prepare Senegalese national roundtable workshop on impacts of the CFA franc devaluation on relative prices and costs of production of key commodities. Continued to Mali to help prepare regional workshop.

January 1996, trip by Dioné to Côte d'Ivoire. Initial contacts with Ivoirian national team that will design study on impacts of CFA franc devaluation on key agricultural subsectors.

December 1995, trip to Senegal by Diagana. Worked with ISRA team on study of the impacts of CFA franc devaluation on agricultural productivity in the Peanut Basin.

November-December 1995, trip by Reardon and Staatz to Mali. With Dioné, participated in the CILSS/Club du Sahel workshop on agricultural intensification. Reardon presented PRISAS/INSAH paper on intensification of Sahelian agriculture as INSAH invitee at conference sponsored by INSAH, IER, and Wageningen and worked with IPR researcher Singare on consumption survey.

November 1995, trip to Chad by Tefft. Worked with Ministry of Agriculture team on study of impact of devaluation on relative prices and costs of production of key agricultural commodities in Chad.

October 1995, trip by Kelly to Senegal and Niger to backstop ongoing work of national teams on the impact of devaluation on costs of production and relative prices. Reviewed draft working papers in Senegal and advised on data needs in Niger.

July 1995, trip by Diagana and Kelly to Senegal and Mali. Worked with ISRA team on agricultural productivity and devaluation studies. Both continued on to Mali to work with PRISAS staff and participate in PRISAS regional workshop.

June 1995, trip by Reardon to Mali. Worked with Sahelian researchers on consumption surveys and methods. Met with Sanogo of IER and Dioné to discuss steps toward investment impacts survey in Mali and with Singaré of IPR to discuss consumption study. Participated in the INSAH/PRISAS regional workshop on the impact of the devaluation of the CFA franc on income and food security in West Africa, and worked with the PRISAS in-country team to plan 1995-96 country studies of the impact of the devaluation on income, investment and consumption in West Africa. (Boughton, Diagana, and Kelly also participated in workshop.)

May 1995, trip by Tefft to Niger. Helped set up the Niger country study with researchers from INRAN, Ministry of Agriculture, and the Université Abdou Moumouni.

April 1995, trip by Tefft to Chad. Worked with the Division of Agricultural Marketing in the Ministry of Agriculture, along with a private Chadian consultant, to set up the administrative procedures for carrying out the Chad country study. Discussed methodological and logistical issues with the team.

April 1995, trip by Tefft to Senegal. Worked with joint ISRA/PASE-UPA team on setting up and carrying out country study of the impact of CFA devaluation on real prices and costs of production in Senegal.

April 1995, trip by Reardon to Mali. Worked with Dioné, Adesina, and Tefft on paper for WARDA workshop on rice in the Sahel.

July 1994, trip by Staatz to Mali. Helped prepare and participated in the INSAH/PRISAS regional workshop on the impact of the CFA franc devaluation on incomes and food security in the Sahel. Tom Reardon and Valerie Kelly from MSU and Ousmane Badiane from IFPRI also participated in the workshop. Worked with Dioné on planning the implementation of the longer-term PRISAS program of work on devaluation and other topics.

September 1993, trip by Staatz and Crawford to Mali. Helped prepare and participate in PRISAS Regional Seminar on "Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment: Implications for Agricultural Research in the Sahel." Planned follow-up activities to the seminar and the work plan for 1994. Developed revised proposal for funding of 1994 activities of PRISAS.

May-June 1993, trip by Staatz to Mali. Helped prepare upcoming PRISAS regional seminar on agricultural technology research in the Sahel. Discussed issues of how to handle the transition of food security research at INSAH with the starting of the PADRES project. Briefed new USAID/Mali staff on history of PRISAS work and issues concerning how to assure the continuity of that research and outreach in the future.

February-March 1993, trip by Reardon to Mali. Helped prepare upcoming PRISAS regional seminar on agricultural technology research in the Sahel.

November 1992, trip by Reardon and Staatz to Mali. Participated in PRISAS Regional Seminar on "Income Diversification, Informal Non-Agricultural Activities and Food Security." Reardon continued on to Abidjan to participate in the meeting of the Scientific Committee of CINERGIE's West Africa Long-Term Perspectives Study.

August-September 1992, trip by Staatz to Mali. Worked with Kanté in preparation of upcoming workshop. Helped plan coordination of PRISAS work plan with European Community initiative. Worked with Vicky Wise on paper on gender issues in food security research in the Sahel.

June-July 1992, trip by Reardon to Mali. Worked with Kanté and Dioné in planning upcoming regional workshop on the informal sector. Collaborated with Kanté in drafting a working paper for the workshop.

March-April 1992, trip by Staatz, Reardon, and Schmid to Mali. Helped prepare and participate in PRISAS regional seminar on the "Institutional and Legal Environment of Agricultural Input and Commodity Markets in the Sahel." (Schmid was keynote speaker--see list of publications for papers presented.) Worked with Dioné and Kanté in design of next regional workshop on the role of the informal sector and food security.

November 1991, trip by Staatz to Mali. Worked with PRISAS staff to plan next two regional workshops. Discussed with PADRES project paper team the coordination of PRISAS/Food Security II Cooperative Agreement activities with planned PADRES project. Began drafting first policy synthesis bulletin. Worked with Kanté on paper dealing with role of informal sector in food security.

October 1991, trip by Staatz to Mali. Worked with PRISAS staff on follow-up to May conference, including funding of possible mini-grants (e.g., for maize subsector work in Mali).

May 1991, trip by Staatz and Weber to Mali. Participated in PRISAS regional seminar on "Food Security in the Sahel: Review of Studies and Priorities for Future Policy Research and Dialogue" and planning of follow-up activities.

December 1990, trip by Staatz and Schmid to Mali. Worked with Dioné and staff on concept paper on food security in the Sahel. Planning of first PRISAS regional conference on food security issues, scheduled for May 1991. Worked with Dioné on issues concerning legal reforms in the cereals trade.

December 1990, trip by Staatz to Ouagadougou and Paris (continuation of previous trip to Bamako). In Ouagadougou, discussed PRISAS program of work with CILSS headquarters staff and how work could be coordinated with their activities. Introduced PRISAS program to researchers at the University of Ouagadougou and solicited their participation. In Paris, consulted with Club du Sahel and COMAC on regional trade and market information issues.

April-May 1990, trip by Staatz to Mali. Participation of both Dioné and Staatz in CILSS/Club du Sahel Regional Seminar on Market Information Systems in the Sahel. Worked with Dioné on developing detailed first-year work plan for PRISAS.

December 1989. Dioné arrives in Bamako for long-term assignment with INSAH.

November 1989. Participation of Dioné and Staatz in CILSS/Club du Sahel regional trade seminar in Lomé, Togo (see list of publications for paper titles).

October 1989, trip by Staatz to Mali. Finalized administrative arrangements with INSAH for PRISAS, which began in November 1989.

July-August 1989, trip by Dioné to Mali. Participation in Sahelian-donor joint committee that developed a 5-year strategic plan for INSAH. This plan included regional research and outreach on food security. That program eventually evolved into PRISAS.

May-June 1989, trip by Staatz to Mali. Initial contacts made with INSAH officials about possible collaborative regional food security project.

5.8. Written Reports -- Food Security and Development Strategy

The written reports listed below represent work on Sahel food-security issues carried out by PRISAS-affiliated staff. Some of the work was directly funded by PRISAS, while other work was funded, at least in part, by other sources. All the work listed here, however, was carried out in coordination with PRISAS activities and results were diffused through PRISAS. See section 5.9 for publications related to the CFA franc devaluation.

Briefing Papers for Senior-Level African Policy Makers

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Cadre conceptuel pour une reflexion sur la transformation de l'agriculture au Sahel." Prepared for CILSS task force on Agricultural Transformation in the Sahel. Bamako: Institut du Sahel, December.

Staatz, John M. 1995. "Role stratégique des systèmes agricoles et alimentaires dans la lutte contre la faim par la promotion d'une croissance économique durable." Prepared for CILSS task force on Agricultural Transformation in the Sahel. Bamako: Institut du Sahel, December.

Reardon, Thomas and John M. Staatz. 1995. "Reflections on WALTPS Results and Recommendations: Implications for Food Security in West Africa." Food Security Briefing Paper No. 95-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, January.

Dioné, Josué. 1993. "Programme regional de renforcement institutionnel en matière de recherche sur la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel (PRISAS): note synthetique." Synthesis Paper No. 93-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, May. PN-ABS-877.

Dioné, Josué. 1991. "Libéralisation des marchés céréaliers: synthèse des résultats des études et implications pour les politiques alimentaires et de développement agricole au Mali." Synthesis Paper No. 91-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, June. PN-ABS-874.

Analyses of Ways to Increase the Productivity of Agricultural Research in the Sahel

Institut du Sahel. 1993. "Revue des programmes du CILSS: proposition de l'Institut du Sahel." Proposal of INSAH special task force for restructuring projects and programs of the CILSS system. Bamako: Institut du Sahel, March.

Weijenberg, Jan, Josué Dioné, Michael Fuchs-Carsch, Adolphe Kéré, and Jacques Lefort. 1993. "Revitalizing Agricultural Research in the Sahel: A Proposed Framework for Action." World Bank Discussion Paper No. 211. Washington, D.C.: SPAAR (represents collaborative work between INSAH and SPAAR).

CILSS. 1992. "Coopération régionale et politique agricole." Project Paper.

Dioné, Josué. 1991. "Contexte macro-économique et perspectives de croissance de l'agriculture au Sahel: implications pour la recherche agricole." Invited paper at the Sahel Regional Agricultural Research Workshop, sponsored by the Special Program for African Agricultural Research (SPAAR) of the World Bank, Bamako, Mali, 6-11 January, 1991. Working Paper No. DT 91-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, January. PN-ABS-882.

Dioné, Josué. 1991b. "Socio-Economic Development Challenges in the Sahel: Implications for Agriculture and Agricultural Research." Working Paper No. 91-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, April. PN-ABS-884. Draft Contribution for the INSAH/SPAAR Framework of Action for Revitalizing Agricultural Research in the Sahel. French version: "Défis du développement economique et social au Sahel: implications pour l'agriculture et la recherche agricole." PN-ABS-875.

Institut du Sahel. 1990a. "Stratégie et programmation quinquennale (1990-1994): programmes de recherches sur le transfert de technologies et le secteur informel." Revised version of the "Technology Transfer" and "Informal Sector" sub-components of the Socio-Economic Research Component of INSAH's Five-Year (1990-1994) Program. Bamako: INSAH/DRMA/PRISAS, June.

Institut du Sahel. 1990b. "Cadre conceptuel d'intégration du programme quinquennal (1990-1994) en matière de socio-economie." Concept Paper integrating the "Food Security," "Technology Transfer" and "Informal Sector" sub-components of the Socio-Economic Research Component of INSAH's Five-Year (1990-1994) Program.

Institut du Sahel. 1990c. "Cadre conceptuel pour la définition d'un projet d'appui de l'USAID au programme quinquennal de l'Institut du Sahel." Concept Paper for a USAID Support Project to INSAH's Five-Year (1990-1994) Program. Bamako: INSAH/DRMA/PRISAS, November.

PRISAS Policy Conference Reports and Papers

Summary Reports

Dioné, Josué, Moussa Batchily Ba, and Gaoussou Traoré. 1994. Politiques de recherche agricole au Sahel: développement et transfert de technologies dans un environnement en mutation rapide. Report of a regional seminar sponsored by the Institut du Sahel. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, February.

PRISAS. 1993. Regional Seminar: Agricultural Research Policy in the Sahel: Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment: Synthesis Report. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, September. French version: Séminaire régional: politiques de recherche agricole au Sahel: développement et transfert de technologies dans un environnement en mutation rapide: rapport de synthèse.

PRISAS. 1992. "Atelier regional du PRISAS: environnement institutionnel et juridique des marchés des intrants et des produits agricoles au Sahel: compte rendu." Conference Paper No. DC 92-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, March.

PRISAS. 1991. "Regional Workshop on Food Security in the Sahel: Review of Past Studies and Priorities for Future Policy Research and Dialogue." Conference Paper No. 91-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, May. French version: "Atelier regional: sécurité alimentaire au Sahel: bilan des études et priorités des recherches sur les politiques: compte rendu."

Papers

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Ajustement structurel, réformes economiques et transformation de l'agriculture au Sahel." Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, September. Paper prepared for the BAD/MSU/USAID/INSAH conference on the transformation of African Agriculture, Abidjan, September 26-29.

Dioné, Josué and Touba Bedingar. 1995. "Food Security and Technology in West Africa: Needs, Options and Impediments." Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, January. Paper prepared for the Technology Development and Transfer Collaborators Colloquium and Workshop, Harare, January 24-27.

Ba, Moussa Batchily. 1993. "Mobilisation de ressources financières pour la recherche agricole au Sahel." Presentation to PRISAS Regional Seminar on Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment: Implications for Agricultural Research in the Sahel. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, September. PN-ABS-949.

Crawford, Eric W. 1993. "Assessment of the Economic Impact of Agricultural Research: Summary of Studies Conducted by Michigan State University." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 93-66. East Lansing: Michigan State University, December. PN-ABS-777. French version: "L'evaluation de l'impact economique de la recherche agricole: résumé des études menées par Michigan State University." Presentation to PRISAS Regional Seminar on Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment: Implications for Agricultural Research in the Sahel. Bamako, September. PN-ABS-778.

Netoyo, Laomaïbao. 1993. "Evolution des systèmes nationaux de recherche agricole au Sahel dans une perspective régionale et globale: cas du cadre d'action INSAH/SPAAR." Presentation to PRISAS Regional Seminar on Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment: Implications for Agricultural Research in the Sahel. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, September. PN-ABT-291.

Reardon, T. 1993. "Sustainability challenges for agricultural researchers in the Sahel." Paper presented at PRISAS Regional Workshop, August 30-September 3, 1993, Bamako: "Developpement et transfert de technologies dans un environnement en mutation rapide: implications pour la recherche au Sahel."

Schmid, A. Allan. 1992. "Fondations juridique du marché: conséquences pour l'Afrique." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 92-28. East Lansing: Michigan State University, April. PN-ABS-764. English version: "Legal Foundations of the Market: Implications for Africa." PN-ABS-763. Invited Paper for the Regional Workshop of PRISAS on the Institutional and Legal Environment of Agricultural Input and Product Markets in the Sahel. Bamako, March.

Other Conference/Seminar Papers by PRISAS-Affiliated Staff

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Ajustement structurel et education au Mali." Introductory note at the conference organized by the National Education Federation in Bamako, May 1.

Reardon, Thomas, Valerie Kelly, Bocar Diagana, Josué Dioné, Eric Crawford, Kimseyinga Savadogo, and Duncan Boughton. 1995. "Sustainable Capital-led Intensification in Sahel Agriculture: Addressing Structural Constraints After Macroeconomic Policy Reform." Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association Meetings in Washington, D.C., panel on "Post-Structural Adjustment and Food Security in Africa: Policy, Theory, and Cross-Disciplinary Evidence," November.

Reardon, Thomas. 1994. "La diversification des revenus au Sahel et ses liens éventuels avec la gestion des ressources naturelles par les agriculteurs." In Actes du séminaire régional: promotion de systèmes agricoles durables dans les pays d'Afrique soudano-sahélienne, Dakar, Senegal, January 10-14. Rome: FAO.

Staatz, John. 1994. "The Strategic Role of Food and Agricultural Systems in Fighting Hunger through Fostering Sustainable Economic Growth." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 94-39. East Lansing: Michigan State University. Paper prepared for workshop on "The Silent Challenge of Hunger" sponsored by USAID, Global Bureau, Office of Agriculture and Food Security. Washington, D.C., June 28-29.

Reardon, Thomas and M. Mercado Peters. 1993. "Self-Financing of Rural Household Cash Expenditures in Burkina Faso: The Case of Net Cereal Buyers." In Cuevas and Benoit-Cattin, eds., Finance and Rural Development in West Africa, proceedings of the 12th rural economy seminar sponsored by CIRAD, Ohio State University, and University of Ouagadougou, held in Ouagadougou, October 21-25, 1991. Montpellier, France: CIRAD. (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.) PN-ABT-318.

Reardon, T. and M. Mercado-Peters. 1993. "Le problème du financement des dépenses monétaires des ménages ruraux au Burkina Faso: Le cas des ménages déficitaires ayant recours à l'achat de céréales." In Michel Benoit-Cattin (ed.) "Jalon d'économie des systèmes ruraux : le développement des systèmes financiers ruraux en Afrique de l'Ouest," CIRAD-SAR No. 30/93, March.

Delgado, Christopher and Thomas Reardon. 1992. "Cereal Consumption Shifts and Policy Changes in Developing Countries: General Trends and Case Studies from the West African Semi-Arid Tropics." Chapter revised in March 1992, published in the 1991 International Sorghum and Millet CRSP Conference Proceedings, INTSORMIL Publication 92-1. Corpus Christi, Texas, May. (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.) PN-ABT-270.

Hopkins, Jane and Thomas Reardon. 1992. "Potential Welfare Impacts of Trade Regime Changes on Rural Households in Niger: A Focus on Cross-Border Trade." Paper presented at the IFPRI/ISRA conference on the Regional Integration of Agricultural Markets in West Africa: Issues for the Sahelian Countries. Saly Portudal, Senegal, December 2-4, 1992. (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.) PN-ABT-286.

Reardon, Thomas, Jane Hopkins, and Valerie Kelly. 1992. "Structural Adjustment Impacts on Real Incomes and Demand Patterns of Urban and Rural Households in the Sahel." Paper presented at the 29th Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists, 'Food and Agricultural Policies Under Structural Adjustment,' September 21-25, 1992, Hohenheim, Germany. (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.) PN-ABT-281.

Staatz, John M. 1992. "Institutionalist Perspectives on Agricultural Policy Reforms in West Africa." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 92-61. East Lansing: Michigan State University. Paper presented at CIRAD Seminar on Institutional Economics and Agriculture, Montpellier, France, September 7-9. PN-ABS-765.

Dioné, Josué. 1989. "Food Security Policy Reform in Mali and the Sahel." Invited paper at the IXth World Congress of the International Economic Association, Athens, Greece, 28 August-01 September, 1989. In P. Dasgupta, ed. Issues in Contemporary Economics, Volume 3: Policy and Development, 1991, pp. 148-169. London: MacMillan Academic and Professional Ltd and the International Economic Association. PN-ABT-261.

Dioné, Josué. 1989. "Policy Dialogue, Market Reform and Food Security in Mali and the Sahel." In M. Rukini, G. Mudimu and T.S. Jayne, eds., Food Security Policies in the SADCC Region, proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, 16-18 October 1989, pp. 143-170. Harare: UZ/MSU Food Security Research Project, Dept. of Ag. Economics and Extension. PN-ABT-262.

Research Reports

Akindes, F. and T. Reardon. 1996. "Problèmes et méthodes d'enquête sur l'évolution des habitudes de consommation alimentaire en Afrique de l'Ouest." Draft Report, Bamako: PRISAS.

Kelly, V., B. Diagana, T. Reardon, M. Gaye, and E. Crawford. 1996. Cash Crop and Foodgrain Productivity in Senegal: Historical View, New Survey Evidence, and Policy Implications, MSU International Development Paper No. 20. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Savadogo, K. and T. Reardon. 1996. "Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Case Study of Burkina Faso," prepared for FAO for the World Food Summit. University of Ouagadougou: mimeo. April.

Savadogo, K., Reardon, T., and K. Pietola. 1996. Determinants of Farm Productivity and Supply Response in Burkina Faso. MSU International Development Paper No. 21. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues, Challenges, and Options." Research Paper No. 95-06, written for the World Coalition for Africa. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, March.

Dioné, Josué. 1994a. "Impact du commerce mondial, des politiques economiques et des programmes d'adjustement structurel sur la désertification en Afrique de l'Ouest." Research Paper No. 94-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, May.

Dioné, Josué. 1994b. "Human Capital Investment for Agricultural Competitiveness in West Africa." Research Paper No. 94-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, June.

Hopkins, J. and T. Reardon. 1993. Agricultural Price Policy Reform Impacts and Food Aid Targeting in Niger. Final report of the IFPRI/INRAN Project Washington: IFPRI (represents collaborative work with IFPRI).

Kelly, V., T. Reardon, A. A. Fall, B. Diagana, and L. McNeilly. 1993. Final Report of IFPRI/ISRA Project on Consumption and Supply Impacts of Agricultural Price Policies in Senegal. August. Washington: IFPRI (represents collaborative work with IFPRI).

Coulibaly, Ousmane N. and Josué Dioné. 1990. "Agricultural Technology Transfer in the Sahel: Baseline Literature Review." (Provisional Draft.) Research Paper No. 90-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, August. PN-ABS-871.

Dioné, Josué. 1990. "Sécurité alimentaire au Sahel: point sur les études et projet d'agenda de recherche." Research Paper No. 90-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, October. PN-ABS-873. English version: "Food Security in the Sahel: Review of Past and Current Studies and Agenda for Future Research and Dialogue on Policies." PN-ABS-872.

Kanté, Bakary and Josué Dioné. 1990. "Opération triangulaire d'aide alimentaire au Sahel: étude de case: USA - Mali - Niger: synthèse d'information partielle." Research Paper No. 90-03. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, December.

PRISAS Information Bulletins/Policy Syntheses

Mariko, Dramane, James Tefft, and Bakary Coulibaly. 1996. "Crédit et productivité du riz dans l'Office du Niger au Mali." PRISAS Information Bulletin No. 96-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, April.

Tefft, James and Josué Dioné. 1995. "Riz importé: une menace pour la production malienne?" PRISAS Information Bulletin No. 95-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, June.

PRISAS Working Papers

Gaye, M., M. Sene, and V. Kelly. 1996. "Les pratiques paysannes face aux contraintes de productivité: cas du semis de l'arachide au Sénégal." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 96-29. East Lansing: Michigan State University, April.

Savadogo, K., T. Reardon, and K. Pietola. 1996. "Farm Capital Formation and Productivity in the WASAT: links with nonfarm income and cash crops." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 96-26. East Lansing: Michigan State University, April.

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Cadre conceptuel pour une réflexion sur la transformation de l'agriculture au Sahel." Working Paper No. 95-12. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, December. Paper prepared for a meeting on the transformation of agriculture in the Sahel, Bamako, December 4-5.

Dioné, Josué. 1994. "Décalage entre la production et la consommation des céréales au Sahel." Working Paper No. 94-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, January. Invited paper at the Regional Seminar on Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Sudano-Sahelian Countries of Africa, organized by FAO and CIRAD, Dakar, Senegal, January 10-14.

Kanté, Bakary. 1994. "Du monopole à la libéralisation de la transformation du paddy à l'Office du Niger: quelle implications pour la nouvelle société des rizeries." Working Paper No. 94-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, February. PN-ABS-916.

Savadogo, K., T. Reardon, and K. Pietola. 1994. "Determinants of Farm Productivity and Supply Response in Burkina Faso." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 94-79. East Lansing: Michigan State University, November.

Dioné, Josué. 1993. "Approches de la sécurité alimentaire dans les pays du CILSS." Working Paper No. 93-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, November. Invited paper at the Meeting of the "Réseau de prévention des crises alimentaires au Sahel." Club du Sahel, OECD, Paris, France, Novermber 17-18. PN-ABS-894.

Kanté, Bakary. 1993. "Aperçu de la recherche sur le technologies agricoles au Sahel: résultats et contraintes." Working Paper No. 93-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel. Paper prepared for the Regional Seminar on Agricultural Research Policy in the Sahel: Technology Development and Transfer in a Rapidly Changing Environment; organized by PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, Bamako, Mali, August 31-September 3. PN-ABS-893.

Kanté, Bakary. 1992. "Activités informelles non-agricoles et sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Working Paper No. 92-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, October. PN-ABS-886. English version: "Informal Non-Agricultural Activities and Food Security in the Sahel." PN-ABS-885.

Dioné, Josué. 1990. "Amélioration de l'utilisation des données au Sahel: nécessité d'un plan d'action pour le renforcement des capacités locales d'analyse et de diffusion de l'information sur les marchés." Working Paper No. 90-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, April. Paper prepared for the Regional Seminar on Cereals Market Information Systems in the Sahel, sponsored by CILSS and Club du Sahel, Bamako, Mali, April 23-25. PN-ABS-880.

Dioné, Josué. 1990. "Libéralisation des economies et des échanges et sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Working Paper No. 90-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, June. Invited paper at the International Colloquim on How to Feed the World: Food Policies in a Context of Liberalization of Economies and Trade, sponsored by SOLAGRAL, Paris, France, June 26-28. PN-ABS-881.

Dioné, Josué. 1990. "Elargissement des espaces d'échanges et stablisation des marchés alimentaires au Sahel." Working Paper No. 90-03. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, August. Invited paper at the International Seminar on the Future of Agriculture in Sahelian Countries, sponsored by the Club du Sahel and CIRAD, Montpellier, France, September 12-14. PN-ABS-883.

Other Working Papers by PRISAS-Affiliated Staff

Boughton, D., B. Teme, O. Sanogo, J. Staatz, T. Reardon, and E. Crawford. 1995. Development Strategies for Maize in Mali: Using a Commodity Subsector Perspective to Increase the Impact of Agricultural Research and Development. MSU International Development Working Paper. Bamako, Mali and East Lansing: Départment Planification Agricole et Economie Rurale, Institut d'Economie Rurale and Michigan State University.

Taylor, J. Edward and Thomas Reardon. 1995. "Income Diversification and the Impact of Agroclimatic Shock on Incomes, Inequality, and Poverty: Evidence from Burkina Faso." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 95-13. East Lansing: Michigan State University, February.

Reardon, Thomas, Christopher Delgado, and Taladidia Thiombiano. 1992. Substitution by Urban Sahelian Consumers Between Coarse Grains and Imported Rice and Wheat: The Case of Ouagadougou. Submitted to IFPRI June 1992; requested in November 1992 to revise and resubmit. (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.)

D'Agostino, Victoire C. and John M. Staatz. 1989. "Food Security and Economic Growth in the Sahel: Summary of the September 1989 Sahel Cereals Workshop." Document prepared for the CILSS/Club du Sahel Conference on Regional Trade in West Africa: Current Dynamics and Future Inquiries. Lomé, Togo, November 6-11. PN-ABD-956. MSU International Development Working Paper No. 34. East Lansing: Michigan State University, November. French version: "Sécurité alimentaire et croissance économique au Sahel: atelier sur les céréales au Sahel." PN-ABT-263.

Dioné, Josué. 1989. "Comportement commercial des agriculteurs et commerce céréalier régional en Afrique de l'Ouest." Document prepared for the CILSS/Club du Sahel Conference on Regional Trade in West Africa: Current Dynamics and Future Inquiries. Lomé, Togo, November 6-11. PN-ABT-265. MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 89-93. East Lansing: Michigan State University. English version: "The Commercial Behavior of Farmers and Regional Cereal Trade in West Africa." PN-ABT-264.

Theses

Crole, Rees, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. Thesis in progress on income diversification in rural Mali (Sikasso). Reardon, thesis co-supervisor.

Sakurai, T. 1995. "Essays on Uncertainty and Sustainability in the Semi-arid Tropics." Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University. Focus on Burkina Faso. Awarded best dissertation in department, 1995. Reardon, thesis supervisor.

Abdelwahid, Yacoub M. 1995. "Institutional Constraints Affecting Cereals Marketing in Chad." M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University (Staatz was thesis supervisor).

Diagne, Aliou. 1994. "Consumer Behavior and Welfare Measurement under Uncertainty: Theory and Empirical Evidence from Senegal." Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics and Department of Economics, Michigan State University (Eric Crawford and John Strauss were dissertation supervisors).

Dembélé, Niama Nango. 1994. "Economic Analysis of Tranders' Response to Cereals Market Reforms in Mali." Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics and Department of Economics, Michigan State University (Staatz was dissertation supervisor).

Maïga, Younoussa. 1994. "Analyse de la demande des céréales en milieu urbain au Mali: le cas de la ville de Bamako." Thesis for Doctorat 3éme Cycle in Agricultural Economics, University of Abidjan (Dioné was thesis supervisor).

Diarra, Daouda. 1993. "Analyse economique de l'intégration spatiale des marchés céréaliers et de l'impact du crédit P.R.M.C. sur le revenu des producteurs agricoles au Mali." Thesis for Doctorat 3éme Cycle in Agricultural Economics, University of Abidjan. Degree awarded with honors (Dioné was thesis supervisor).

Ndiaye, Ousmane. 1993. "Micro-level small ruminant transaction analysis and livestock policy in Senegal." M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University (Reardon, thesis co-supervisor).

Sahel-Oriented Journal Articles by PRISAS-Affiliated Staff

Boughton, D. and T. Reardon. Forthcoming. "Will Promotion of Coarse Grain Processing Turn the Tide for Traditional Cereals in the Sahel: Recent Empirical Evidence from Mali." Food Policy, accepted August 1996.

Kelly, V., B. Diagana, and T. Reardon. 1996 . "Nonprice Determinants of Input Acquisition Behavior in Senegal." Select Paper, AAEA 1996 Meetings. Abstract. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, December.

Reardon, T., V. Kelly, B. Diagana, J. Dione, E. Crawford, K. Savadogo, and D. Boughton. Forthcoming. "Sustainable Capital-led Intensification in Sahel Agriculture: Addressing Structural Constraints After Macroeconomic Policy Reform." Food Policy, accepted August 1996.

Sakurai, T. and T. Reardon. "Potential Demand for Drought Insurance in the Sahel and its Determinants." Submitted August 1996 to American Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Dibley, D., D. Boughton, and T. Reardon. 1995. "Processing and Preparation Costs for Rice and Coarse Grains in Urban Mali: Subjecting Conventional Wisdom to Empirical Scrutiny." Food Policy, 20, No. 1, February.

Reardon, Thomas. 1995. "Sustainability Issues for Agricultural Research Strategies in the Semi-Arid Tropics: Focus on the Sahel." Agricultural Systems, 48, No. 3 (October): 345-360. MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 94-43. East Lansing: Michigan State University, July. PN-ABT-294.

Reardon, Thomas and J. Edward Taylor. 1995. "Agroclimatic Shock, Income Inequality, and Poverty: Evidence from Burkina Faso." World Development, 24, No. 5 (May).

Savadogo, K., T. Reardon, and K. Pietola. 1995. "Mécanisation et offre agricole dans le Sahel: une analyse de la fonction de profit des exploitations agricoles," Revue d'economie du développement, No. 2, June: 57-92.

Savadogo, Kimseyinga, Thomas Reardon, and Kyosti Pietola. 1995. "Mechanization and Agricultural Supply Response in the Sahel: A Farm-Level Profit Function Analysis." Journal of African Economies 4, No. 3 (December):336-77.

Kennedy, Eileen and Thomas Reardon. 1994. "Shift to Non-Traditional Grains in the Diets of East and West Africa: Role of Women's Opportunity Cost of Time." Food Policy, 19, No. 1 (February): 45-56 (represents joint work with IFPRI). PN-ABT-299.

Sakurai, T., M. Gautam, T. Reardon, P. Hazell, and H. Alderman. 1994. "Potential Demand for Drought Insurance in Burkina Faso." Select Paper, AAEA Meetings. Abstract. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, December.

Savadogo, Kimseyinga, Thomas Reardon, and Kyosti Pietola. 1994. "Farm Productivity in Burkina Faso: Effects of Animal Traction and Non-Farm Income." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76, No. 3 (August): 608-612. PN-ABS-954.

Haddad, Lawrence and Thomas Reardon. 1993. "Gender Bias in the Allocation of Resources Within Households in Burkina Faso: A Disaggregated Outlay Equivalent Analysis." Journal of Development Studies, 29, No. 2 (January): 260-276 (represents collaborative work with IFPRI). PN-ABT-287.

Reardon, Thomas. 1993. "Cereals Demand in the Sahel and Potential Impacts of Regional Cereals Protection." World Development, 21, no. 1 (January): 17-35. (Represents collaborative work with IFPRI.) PN-ABS-928.

Reardon, T. and J. E. Taylor 1993. "Agro-climatic Heterogeneity, Income Diversification, and Inequality in Rural Burkina Faso." Select Paper, AAEA 1993 Meetings. Abstract. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, December.

Reardon, Thomas, Christopher Delgado, and Peter Matlon. 1992. "Determinants and Effects of Income Diversification Amongst Farm Households in Burkina Faso." Journal of Development Studies, 28, No. 2 (January): 264-296 (represents joint work with IFPRI). PN-ABS-957.

Reardon, Thomas, Nurul Islam, and Michel Benoît-Cattin. 1992. "Questions de durabilité pour la recherche agricole en Afrique." Cahiers de la recherche développement. Montpellier, France: CIRAD, April. PN-ABS-927.

Reardon, Thomas, Peter Matlon, and Christopher Delgado. 1992. "Comment les ménages font face á l'insécurité alimentaire dans les régions touchées par la sécheresse au Burkina Faso." Cedres Etudes: Revue Economique et Sociale Burkinabé, XXXV (September). PN-ABT-278.

Schmid, A. Allan. 1992. "Legal Foundations of the Market: Implications for Formerly Socialist Countries of Eastern Europe and Africa." Journal of Economic Issues, XXVI, No. 3 (September): 707-32. PN-ABS-926.

Webb, Patrick and Thomas Reardon. 1992. "Drought Impact and Household Response in East and West Africa." Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 3 (July-September): 230-46 (represents joint work with IFPRI). PN-ABT-272.

Reardon, T., C. Delgado, and P. Matlon. 1991. "Determinants and Effects of Household Income Diversification by Agroecological Zone in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Select Paper, AAEA 1991 Meetings. Abstract. December.

Dioné, Josué. 1990. "Libéralisation interne et sécurité alimentaire." Supplement la lettre de Sologral - Strategies Alimentaires No. 34. Septembre/Octobre. PN-ABT-266.

Staatz, John M., Victoire C. D'Agostino, and Shelly Sundberg. 1990. "Measuring Food Security in Africa: Conceptual, Empirical, and Policy Issues." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 72, No. 5 (December): 1311-17. PN-ABS-925.

Book Chapters

Reardon, Thomas, Amadou Abdoulaye Fall, Valerie Kelly, Christopher Delgado, Peter Matlon, Jane Hopkins, and Ousmane Badiane. 1993. "Agriculture-led Income Diversification in the West African Semi-arid Tropics: Nature, Distribution, and Importance of Production-linkage Activities," chapter in forthcoming book African Economic Issues, edited by A. Atsain, S. Wangwe and A. G. Drabek. (Represents joint work with IFPRI.) PN-ABT-296.

Reardon, Thomas and Patrick Webb. 1993. "Stratégies des ménages pour faire face aux crises alimentaires pendant et après la sécheresse en Afrique de l'Ouest et de l'Est." In Afrique-Asie: performances agricole comparées, edited by Etienne, Griffon, and Guillamont. Paris: Revue Française d'Economie, June. PN-ABT-289.

Staatz, John M. 1991. "Conceptual Issues in Analyzing the Economics of Agricultural and Food Self-Sufficiency." In National and Regional Self-Sufficiency Goals: Implications for International Agriculture, edited by Fred J. Ruppel and Earl D. Kellogg, pp. 13-25. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. PN-ABT-273.

Staatz, John M. and Jennifer B. Wohl. 1991. "The Evolution of Food Self-Sufficiency Policies in West Africa." In National and Regional Self-Sufficiency Goals: Implications for International Agriculture, edited by Fred J. Ruppel and Earl D. Kellogg, pp. 65-87. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. PN-ABT-267.

5.9. Written Reports - CFA Franc Devaluation

The reports listed below represent work that specifically addresses impacts of the devaluation of the CFA franc.

PRISAS Policy Conference Reports and Papers

Summary Reports

PRISAS. 1995. Atelier regional: impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire en Afrique de l'Ouest: compte rendu provisoire. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, June 26-30.

PRISAS. 1995. Principaux résultats des études nationales présentées à l'ateliér régional tenu du 26 au 30 Juin 1995. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, June.

Dioné, Josué. 1994. Atelier regional: impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les revenues et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel: introduction, note de presentation. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, July 11-14.

Fall, Abdoulaye, John Staatz, and Moussa Ba. 1994. Regional Workshop: Impact of the Devaluation of the CFA Franc on Incomes and Food Security in the Sahel - Preliminary Summary Report. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, July 11-14. French version: Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les revenues et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel: compte rendu provisoire.

Papers

Dibley, David, Thomas Reardon, and Bakary Kanté. 1995. "Experiences de dévaluation dans le Tiers Monde: cadre conceptuel, étude de cas, et implications pour les analyses du réseau PRISAS." Prepared for PRISAS conference on CFA franc devaluation, July.

Reardon, T., V. Kelly, B. Diagana, J. Dioné, E. Crawford, K. Savadogo, and D. Boughton. 1995. "Intensification durable induite par le facteur capital dans l'agriculture sahélienne: surmonter les contraintes structurelles après les réformes des politiques macro-économiques." In K. Sissokho and H. Breman (editors), Actes du Colloque International sur l'Intensification Agricole au Sahel: Mythe ou Réalité? Bamako, Mali, 27 novembre-1 décembre 1995; Editions Karthala, Paris.

Dioné, Josué. 1994. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur l'agriculture, les echanges et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Working Paper No. DT 94-03. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, October. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the CILSS-Club du Sahel, Le Rouret, France, October 17-20.

Other Conference/Seminar Papers by PRISAS-Affiliated Staff

Reardon, T., V. Kelly, B. Diagana, J. Dione, E. Crawford, K. Savadogo, and D. Boughton.1996. "Sustainable Capital-led Intensification in Sahel Agriculture: Addressing Structural Constraints After Macroeconomic Policy Reform." Paper presented at the International Symposium "Food Security and Innovations: Successes and Lessons Learned," Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany, March 11. Proceedings.

Reardon, Thomas, Josué Dioné, Akin Adesina, and James Tefft. 1995. "Rice in West Africa Before and After Franc CFA Devaluation: Focus on CILSS Countries." Paper presented at WARDA conference in Ndiaye, Senegal, March 25-29.



Reardon, T., V. Kelly, B. Diagana, and A. Fall. 1992. "Potential Welfare Impacts of Trade Regime Changes on Households in Senegal: Focus on Devaluation." Presented at the IFPRI/ISRA conference on "Regional integration of agricultural markets in West Africa: Issues for the Sahelian countries," Senegal, December 2-4.

Research Reports by PRISAS Staff

Dibley, D., T. Reardon, and J. Staatz. 1996. "How Does a Devaluation Affect an Economy? Lessons from Africa, Asia, and Latin America." Bamako: INSAH.

Sacko, Bafotigui. 1996. "Utilisation d'indicateurs de suivi des performances des programmes macro économique." INSAH/PRISAS Methods Paper, Bamako: January.

Kelly, Valerie, Thomas Reardon, Bocar Diagana, and Amadou Abdoulaye Fall. 1994. "Impacts of Devaluation on Senegalese Households: Policy Implications." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 94-20. East Lansing: Michigan State University, March. PN-ABS-779. French version: "L'impact de la dévaluation sur les mènages Sénégalais: les implications politiques." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 94-20F. East Lansing: Michigan State University, June.

Research Reports by National Teams

Chad

Padacke, Fauba, M. Yacoub Abdelwahid, Djimasse Ngaradoum, Ngona Yadjine, and Ahmed Blane. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation sur la sécurité alimentaire au Tchad: Evolution des coûts de production des céréales sèches, du riz et du coton." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. N'Djaména: PRISAS-DCPA/DPPASA, June.

Padacke, Fauba and Djimasbé Ngaradoum. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les revenus et la securité alimentaire au Tchad: prix et coûts de production des céréales sèches, du riz et du coton." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. N'Djaména: PRISAS-DCPA/DPPASA, June.

Mali

Dembélé, Sissoko Naminata. 1996. "Impact des reformes de politiques sur la filière fruits et légumes au Mali." Paper presented at the PRISAS Regional Workshop on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Bamako: April. IER/ECOFIL.

Diallo, Mohamed. 1996. "Impact macro économique des reformes de politiques au Mali." Paper presented at the PRISAS Regional Workshop on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Bamako: April. Ministère des Finances.

Koné, Youssouf. 1996. "Impact des reformes de politiques sur la filière bétail/viande au Mali." Paper presented at the PRISAS Regional Workshop on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel," Bamako: OMBEVI, April.

Mariko, Dramane, Ousmane Sanogo, and Anne Chohin. 1996. "Coût de production du riz paddy et revenus des producteurs deux ans après la dévaluation." Paper presented at the PRISAS Regional Workshop on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Bamako: April. IER/ECOFIL.

Sanogo, Ousmane. 1996. "Recherche filière et utilisation de la matrice de planification." Paper presented at the PRISAS Regional Workshop on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Bamako: April. IER/ECOFIL.

Ba, Sadou Oumar, Belco Cissé, and Samba Diallo. 1995. "Stratégies développées par les producteurs pour assurer l'approvisionnement interne et externe en produits animaux." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Bamako: Ministère du Développement Rural et l'Environnement, IER, June.

Coulibaly, Bakary Sékou, Ousmane Sanogo, and Dramane Mariko. 1995. "Cas du coûts de production du paddy à l'Office du Niger." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Bamako: Ministère du Développement Rural et l'Environnement, IER, June.

Kébé, Demba, Hugo De Groote, Timothy Dalton, and Yacouba Koné. 1995. "Effets de la dévaluation sur l'intensification agricole au Mali-Sud." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Bamako: PRISAS-IER, June.

Koné, Harouna, Sékou Traoré, Salif Diarra, Abdramane Traoré, and Pierre Traoré. 1995. "L'impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les prix." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Bamako: PRISAS-SIM/DNSI, June.

Sangaré, Modibo, Boubou Sow, and Tapsirou Maïga. 1995. "Effets du développement des echanges commerciaux du bétail et de la viande sur l'accessibilité des populations à la viande." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Bamako: Ministère du Developpement Rural et de l'Environnement, OMBEVI, June.

Traoré, Boubacar. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur le processus de transformation du paddy au Mali." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Bamako: PRISAS-IER, June.

Niger

Diallo, Boubacar, Mahamadou Ali, Maï-Moussa Gapto, and J.P. Attimdehou. 1995. "L'impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les prix de l'oignon et du coton au Niger." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Niamey: PRISAS-INRAM/University of Niamey, June.

Moha, Aliou and Samba Ly. 1995. "L'impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les coûts de production de l'oignon et du coton au Niger." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Niamey: PRISAS-INRAM/University of Niamey, June.

Ly, Samba, Amadou Kaka, and Boubacar Diallo. 1994. "Revue des initiatives de suivi et d'analyse des effets de la dévaluation du franc CFA au Niger." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Niamey: INRAM/University of Niamey, July.

Senegal

Badji, Yankhoba Jacques, and Pierre Ndiaye. 1996. "Indice des prix à la consommation." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Cissé, Moussa. 1996. "Prix des céréales sèches." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Diagana, Bocar, Matar Gaye, and Valerie Kelly. 1996. "Filières céréales sèches et arachide dans le bassin arachidier: production et intensification agricole." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Diagana, Bocar, Valerie Kelly, and Moustapha Kébé. 1996. "L'offre agricole suite a la dévaluation: pourquoi une réponse si faible?" Paper presented at the World Bank Workshop on the Agricultural Sector Investment Program. Dakar: June. ISRA/PASE.

Diouf, Amadou Fall. 1996. "Produits d'exportation: ratios prix." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Fall, Amadou Abdoulaye. 1996. "Filière riz dans la vallée du fleuve du Sénégal: coût de production." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Kébé. Moustapha. 1996. "Note introductive: cadre méthodologique." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Kébé, Moustapha, and Moustapha Dème. 1996. "Filière pêche artisanale maritime, rentabilité." Paper presented at the National Roundtable on "Impact de la dévaluation du F CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal." Dakar: February. ISRA/PASE.

Diagana, Bocar N., Valerie Kelly, and A. Abdoulaye Fall. 1995. "Dévaluation du franc CFA et décisions de production agricole. Une analyse des impacts de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les choix de culture et de technologies de production par les ménages ruraux du Bassin Arachider du Sénégal." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Dakar: PRISAS-ISRA/BAME, June.

Diène, Mame N'Diobo, Amadou F. Diouf, Babacar Fall, and Moussa Cissé. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur la sécurité alimenataire et les revenus: module prix Senegal." Dakar: PRISAS-UPA/DPS/CSA, September.

Kébé, Moustapha, Matar Gaye, Moustapha Dème, Cheikh M'Backé N'Dioné, Abdoulaye Fall, and Mame N'Diobo Diène. 1995. "Etude de l'impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire au Sénégal: premiers résultats du projet INSAH/ISRA." PRISAS Regional Collaborative Research Report. Dakar: PRISAS-ISRA/BAME, June.

PRISAS Information Bulletins/Policy Syntheses

Diagana, Bocar and Valerie Kelly. 1996. Will the CFA Franc Devaluation Enhance Sustainable Agricultural Intensification in the Senegalese Peanut Basin? MSU Policy Synthesis No. 9. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

B. Diagana and V. Kelly. 1996. La dévaluation du franc CFA: quelles perspectives pour une intensification durable de la production agricole dans le Bassin Arachidier du Sénégal? MSU Policy Synthesis No. 9F. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Dioné, Josué and James Tefft. 1996. PRISAS/INSAH-MSU-USAID Sahel Regional Food Security Project: Results and Impact. MSU Policy Synthesis No. 10. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Tefft, James. 1996. "Commenter profiter de l'aubaine cotonnière?" PRISAS Information Bulletin No. 96-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, April.

PRISAS Working Papers

Gaye, M. and V. Kelly. 1996. "L'utilisation des terres agricoles dans le bassin arachidier du Sénégal: facteurs déterminants des combinaisons culturales et des systémes de rotation." MSU Agricultural Economics Staff Paper No. 96-32. East Lansing: Michigan State University, April.

Kelly, V. and B. Diagana. 1996. "Gender Differentiated Response to the CFA Franc Devaluation by Farmers in the Senegalese Peanut Basin." PRISAS/ISRA working paper, September.

Singaré, K., B. Teme, O. Sanogo, and Y. Camara. 1996. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur la consormmation alimentaaire à Bamako." Draft working paper, July.

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Dévaluation du franc CFA et sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Working Paper No. DT 95-05. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, March.

Dioné, Josué. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur l'agriculture, l'elevage, et les echanges au Mali." Working Paper No. DT 95-06. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, March.

Kanté, Bakary, Thomas Reardon, and Amagoïn Kéita. 1995. "Dévaluation du franc CFA: analyse typologique des mésures d'accompagnement." Working Paper No. DT 95-11. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, December.

Koïta, Amadou, James Tefft, and Josué Dioné. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur le secteur d'éducation au Mali." Working Paper No. DT 95-07. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, July.

Reardon, Thomas and Valerie Kelly. 1995. "Methods for Analysis of Impacts of CFA Franc Devaluation on Real Income of Households." Working Paper No. 95-02. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, January. French version: "Méthodes d'analyse de l'impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur le revenu réel des ménages."

Staatz, John. 1995. "Use of Simple Price Analyses for Analyzing the Impact of CFA Franc Devaluation." Working Paper No. 95-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, January.



Tefft, James, Salif Coulibaly, Josué Dioné, and Aboudou Diarra. 1995. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur le secteur de santé au Mali." Working Paper No. DT 95-08. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, July.

Dioné, Josué. 1994. "Impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les revenues et la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel." Project Document No. 94-01. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, April.

Kanté, Bakary, 1994. "Effets immédiats de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur la sécurité alimentaire et les revenus au Sahel: le cas du Mali." Project Document No. 94-04. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, November.

Staatz, John, Josué Dioné, Valerie Kelly, and Thomas Reardon. 1994. "Monitoring and Analysis of the Effects of the Devaluation of the CFA Franc on Food Security and Economic Growth in West Africa: Conceptual and Methodological Framework." Project Document No. 94-05. Bamako: PRISAS, Institut du Sahel, July. French version: "Suivi et analyse des effets de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur la sécurité alimentaire et la croissance economique en Afrique de l'Ouest: cadre conceptuel et méthodologique."

Other Working Papers by PRISAS-Affiliated Staff

Keita, Amagoin. 1995. "Suivi et analyse des mésures d'accompagnement des bailleurs de fonds au Mali suite à la dévaluation du franc CFA." Orsay: Centre d'Observation des Economies Africaines (COBEA), February.

Keita, Amagoin. 1994. "Suivi de l'impact de la dévaluation du franc CFA sur les filières du riz et du coton au Mali." Orsay: Centre d'Observation des Economies Africaines (COBEA), June.

CFA Devaluation-Oriented Journal Articles

Kelly, V., T. Reardon, B. Diagana, and A.A. Fall. 1995. "Impacts of devaluation on Senegalese households: policy implications." Food Policy, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 299-313.

5.10. Examples of Impact of Project Findings/Information

Food policy reforms in Mali--A briefing paper prepared for the Minister of Agriculture on food-security research results in Mali and elsewhere in the Sahel documented the adverse impact on rural food security of the head tax. This documentation was one element that led to the government's decision to abolish the head tax in 1993.

Broadened scope of food security debate--PRISAS documents, seminars, and other outreach activities have played an important role in broadening the food policy debate beyond national food self-sufficiency in the Sahel. Sahelian governments now generally have a broader conception of food security that includes greater reliance on trade and income generation.

Increasing the productivity of agricultural research in the Sahel--PRISAS has contributed to reforming agricultural research strategies in the Sahel through activities such as the September 1993 Regional Seminar on Agricultural Research and Dioné's contribution to developing the INSAH/SPAAR framework for action. These actions have built momentum and consensus for agricultural research in the region to be more demand-driven, market/client-oriented, and accountable for its impact. PRISAS has played a key role in getting Sahelian NARS to endorse the concept of building impact assessment into their national agricultural research programs and advocating greater use of subsector approaches to plan agricultural research.

Incorporating transaction cost considerations into marketing and trade policy formulation and analyses--PRISAS has helped build policy makers' and researchers' awareness of the role transaction costs play in influencing market reforms--e.g., through sponsoring a regional workshop on the institutional and legal environment of agricultural markets and publishing documents on this topic.

Major contributions to the formation of a long-term strategic development plan by CILSS--Analyses carried out under the project have been incorporated into the ongoing CILSS work on the economic future of the Sahel and on strategies to promote agricultural transformation in the region.

Broadened debate on the impact of institutional arrangements on the distribution of benefits from devaluation--PRISAS-sponsored comparative analyses of the impact of devaluation on the participants in the cotton subsector in several CFA countries have broadened the debate within CILSS on the impact of different ways of organizing subsectors on the distribution of benefits from macro-economic reforms.

Contribution to rice import reforms in Mali--In conjunction with the Malian Market Information System, PRISAS supported a study to evaluate the impact of reducing rice import tariffs in Mali following the devaluation. Rice prices rose rapidly in mid 1995, and the government proposed reducing the import tariff to lower consumer prices. Some government officials and donors voiced concern that cutting the import-tariff would undermine production incentives in Mali. PRISAS-supported research demonstrated that because of the devaluation, even with the reduced import tariff, rice production in the Office du Niger zone would still be profitable for farmers. The government has cut the tariff, lowering consumer prices, with no noticeable impact on domestic production.

Influence on policy debates concerning the relationships among agricultural productivity, agricultural intensification, and devaluation--PRISAS-supported research on: (a) devaluation and agricultural intensification in Senegal, (b) agricultural productivity and rural incomes and devaluation in Senegal, (c) productivity and policy reforms (including devaluation) in Burkina Faso, and (d) structural constraints to sustainable intensification of agriculture after the devaluation have strongly influenced policy debates among donors and policymakers. Examples: (1) in 1996, the FAO Director General used summaries of this research in discussions with the European Union and the World Bank about agricultural policy in the post-devaluation period; (2) the World Bank team on the Agricultural Sector Investment Program in Senegal and USAID/Senegal have widely cited this work in analyzing the reasons for the weak supply response to structural adjustment and devaluation in Senegal; and (3) INSAH requested the intensification/devaluation/productivity work be presented as its contribution at the regional intensification conference sponsored by INSAH, UniversityWageningen and ABL-DO in December 1995 in Bamako. The results were subsequently presented at the International Technology and Food Security Conference in November 1996 in the Hague at ISNAR, where there was wide representation of African and European policymakers and researchers.

6. General Research Activities

Multi-country design of study of contractual arrangements and transaction costs in food markets.

Promotion of country and regional-level studies of commodity subsectors and comparative advantages.

7. Outputs Anticipated

More fact-based recommendations for reducing institutional and legal impediments to greater market flows of food at lower transfer and transaction costs.

More policies aimed at increasing the supply-response to new incentives brought about by the devaluation. Better targeting of safety-net measures to protect those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of the devaluation.

More comparative analyses across countries of how different institutional arrangements for the production and marketing of agricultural products affect who gains and who loses from devaluation.

More analyses of the gender-differentiated impact of the CFA franc devaluation.